New brain imaging research debunks a controversial theory about dyslexia that can impact how it is sometimes treated. The cerebellum, a brain structure traditionally considered to be involved in motor function, has been implicated in the reading disability, developmental dyslexia, however, this ‘cerebellar deficit hypothesis’ has always been controversial. The new research shows that the cerebellum is not engaged during reading in typical readers and does not differ in children who have dyslexia.
The other day I got a call from Derek Jeter, Hall of Fame New York Yankee baseball player.
Me: “Derek, what’s up?”
Derek; Dude, “Are you retired or what? I can’t figure you out.”
Me: “Look who’s talking, heh heh. Listen D, I got a call from Clint Eastwood the other day and we were talking about some of the same stuff. Clint was venting a little. “Sanford,” he whined. “Everyone seems to want to put me in a small box.” (“Pine? I joked”) “I want to keep directing even though I’m not in front of the camera much any more.”
Me now to Derek: “Derek I get it. For a while I wasn’t exactly sure either. When we moved to Ecuador in 2016 I was clear that I’d given up part of my work and definitely my day to day job. And for sure when my dad died last year the question of retirement became even trickier for me. In my own mind “retirement” was now connected to my own aging and even mortality. So full on “retirement” wasn’t something I was comfortable looking at too closely. And I didn’t like the box it seemed to be.”
But Are You Retired?
Derek: “Man, there you go getting all deep on me. I just wanna know if you’re working or not. Are you retired?”
Me: Derek look, when you left the Yankees you weren’t done with life. In fact you’ve gone on to do some pretty amazing things that contribute to Sports right? So when I sold the Bend Learning Center in 2016 it meant I’ve given up big parts of my work as a special educator. But I’ve come to see that I needed to redefine what working now means to me. The easiest way I can explain my “retirement” is that I’ve transformed the ways in which I now work, contribute and express myself.”
Derek: “OK. What’s that mean, practically?”
Me: “It means I’ve let go of my role as an educational placement consultant. I gave up the Bend Learning Center which was my day clinic in Bend Oregon. It means If I get a call from someone looking for guidance on school or treatment programs for their child, I’ll refer them to someone else. The Bend Learning Center goes on because I was able to leave that legacy in other people’s capable hands. But there’s more to my desire to work and contribute than placement.”
Me: “What I’m telling you is this: I’ve hung up my cleats but picked up my hiking shoes. You see when I say I’ve changed the ways I work…here’s some more of it. I’ve written a children’s book on Anxiety that was recognized as the best new release. I’ll soon have another children’s book on Dyslexia coming out. And now that I’m free from placement work and the day to day clinic work I’m able to focus more on the parts of my ‘work’ that are also my true passions, not to mention learning a new language and exploring this beautiful Latin and Native culture.”
Derek: OK, I understand. So what else is going on? I mean I get the passions part. What’s that look like for you?
Me: It means I get to choose projects that are most important and current for me. I’m now focused on using my experience in the cognitive sciences of learning, memory and attention, executive functions and motivation, in order to help programs that treat mental health issues of depression anxiety and addictions.
Derek: Sounds good man. Thanks for the update.
Me: Cool. Hey gotta go; Clint’s on the line.
Note: If the satirical nature of this isn’t clear, let me simply say that I also got calls from Abraham Lincoln and Satchel Paige.
Since rates of anxiety, depression and self harm, including suicide and substance abuse are decidedly on the rise, there’s s striking need for clinicians, counselors and mentors to think differently. We can and must learn different and better ways to connect and communicate with struggling kids and teens. The sciences of learning disabilities, motivation and attention can show us some roadmaps to those better ways. The best practices from specialized populations gives insights to help everyone.
The focus of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is in designing and delivering (teaching) curriculum in ways that give greater access to the widest range of abilities and learning differences. By varying motivational approaches (engagement), how information is presented (representation) and the ways in which kids interact and show understanding (expression), we can reach more kids with better results. This approach reduces the need for specialized instructions tailored only for one type of learner. While there will always be a need for special and intensive instruction, UDL helps to reduce that need. As is sometimes mentioned, building a ramp for wheelchair use or for someone on crutches winds up creating easier access for all.
We can take best practices learned when treating and teaching kids with learning disabilities, and apply some of them when working with all students. Think about using visual prompts when stimulating written expression for someone with dyslexia. It can help prompt and organize language for them; but this approach can also be useful when treating kids with anxiety and depression. Whenever you want to communicate and build connection with kids and teens who are struggling with mental health (whether or not they’re caused by or are secondary results from LDs), using approaches that put less wear and tear on working memory and processing speed are useful for anyone. They use smoother and more direct neuronal pathways, reduce cognitive load, and in many cases lessen resistance to therapy. Understanding the impact of a child’s learning profile can be an incredibly powerful part of communication. Understanding one’s own Learning Profile is to understand your own defaults, biases and preferences, all of which can either hinder or build communication and relationship.
“When working with children and teens who are struggling in school, a thorough psycho educational evaluation is so helpful and necessary. But it is a tool for understanding. The goal is understanding, connection and treatment.
In treating teenagers and young adults with depression, anxiety, and addictions, knowing the intricacies of their Learning Profile is powerful.
What are the easiest neurological pathways to accessing feelings and ruminative thoughts?
I’m privileged to be leading and partnering with Evoke Therapy Programs, a long-time trusted leader in this field.
We’re working to apply the latest and most important parts of Cognitive Science to help heal struggling teens in treatment through on-going clinical and staff trainings. The staff are incredibly engaged and reflective. High-level understanding of our children’s Learning and Cognitive Profile dramatically increases our options to lessen resistance, heal the root causes of wounding, and build our own community. Perhaps most importantly, this approach frees the heart to speak its most important truths.
Five Keys of a Child’s Learning or Cognitive Profile: 1. Language Processing 2. Visual Imagery 3. Kinesthetic Sensing 4. Executive Functions 5. Processing Speed and Depth
These things matter. All Minds Matter. All Brains Matter.
About 1 in 59 children is diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and one of the early signs observed by parents and caregivers is a delay in their social and communication skills. Children with autism have a hard time expressing themselves and communicating with others, and these difficulties can become more debilitating as they grow older. This is why early diagnosis and interventions are crucial for children with ASD. Apart from traditional interventions, parents and practitioners have utilized alternative methods like art therapy to improve the communication skills of children with ASD.
The Importance Of Early Interventions For Children With Autism
Due to their difficulty in communicating with others, children with ASD may develop aggressive behaviors, self-injurious behaviors, social withdrawal, as well as feelings of loneliness and depression. Autism can also co-occur with other conditions such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), clinical depression, motor difficulties and sleep problems. Thus, it’s important to address these issues as early as possible and provide children with the interventions they need to cope with these difficulties. Traditional interventions include applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy, social skills training and psychopharmacotherapy.
Art therapy can help children with ASD pay attention and engage with their surroundings more as well as communicate better with other people. As visual and concrete thinkers, art therapy can be used to explain certain situations to children with ASD and give them a visual way of solving problems. This can be more effective compared to a theoretical discussion that deals with abstract situations or problems.
Art therapy can also be adapted to the specific needs of a child diagnosed with autism. For example, a child with sensory modulation difficulties may become more engaged when provided with a variety of art materials and mediums. The sensory nature of drawing or painting can encourage these children to express themselves more.
As children become teens or adults, art therapy can still be used to enhance their social and communication skills. Art-based group activities can provide individuals with autism a social environment that is supportive and understanding of their experiences. Within the group, they can share about their artworks and a therapist can provide prompts that will encourage them to successfully converse with others.
Aggressive and self-injurious behaviors from children with ASD can be due to difficulty expressing themselves and communicating effectively with others. Studies have found that alternative interventions such as art therapy, especially when utilized at a young age, can help with self-expression as well as improve their communication skills. Not only that, parents, caregivers and teachers can also use art therapy to understand children with ASD. Their artwork can provide insight into how they view others as well as their unique experiences. As such, art therapy can be a very valuable tool not just for children with ASD but also or their families, teachers and friends.
A BRAVE FACE Masks, a charcoal drawing by Alexandra Kelso, grapples with the feeling of trying to act like everything is fine while also struggling with mental illness. – IMAGE COURTESY OF ALEXANDRA KELSO
The Effects of Educational Wounding
Two of the most significant stressors for U.S.school-aged youth are academic struggle and failure. Pressures to achieve and succeed have become so pervasive and at the same time kids have access to fewer and fewer supports. For students with Learning Differences such as Dyslexia the problems are even more critical. We are routinely wounding and traumatizing our creative and sensitive students.
Though students with learning disabilities can achieve greatness, they all too often fall into depression and behavioral distress. Common experiences include feeling shamed, “less than” or damaged. And the results are alarming,
Some years back a white paper put out by the National Center for Learning Disabilities and the National Institute on Drug Abuse, as well as the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (Columbia University) referenced studies that indicated what may seem obvious:
1. Children with LD are at greater risk for school failure and
2. dropping out
But more Striking:
3. As many as ½ of children with ADD self-medicate with drugs and alcohol
4. One study indicated that 40% of individuals in substance abuse treatment programs have Learning Disabilities.
Solutions need focus on adjusting treatment and communication approaches that are sensitive to the cognitive/learning profile of students and not the other way around.
“Dr. Helen Taussig was the founder of the field of pediatric cardiology. She overcame gender-based opposition striving to become a preeminent cardiologist and physician. Despite severe dyslexia and discrimination because she was a woman, Taussig obtained her medical degree from Johns Hopkins in 1927. Suffering from hearing loss due to a childhood illness, Taussig mastered non-stethoscope ways to monitor the heart. Using these innovative techniques, Taussig discovered the cause of ‘blue baby syndrome’ and helped design a surgery to correct it.” — via the National Women’s History Museum
Philip Schultz, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet proves that learning differently (dyslexia) can result in greatness. His writing is powerful. If you listen to his story you also hear about anger and deep shame as a result of being an academic outcast and misunderstood. Loss of connection and shame are too often the legacy of an education system ill equipped for Learning Differences. Responding to this burden isn’t a binary choice. LD’s can be opportunities for success but they also carry great risks for struggling with anxiety depression and self-harm. How do we carry both?